Med. dr. V. Klimas advises
Nausea and vomiting in pregnant women are probably the most common complaints of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Studies show that up to 70-85% of pregnant women suffer from it (British Medical Journal, 2004; 328: 503 28 February).
The intensity of nausea and vomiting can range from a slight nausea in the morning only or vomiting in the morning to nausea and / or vomiting that recurs many times a day and even at night. When women are unable to eat or drink, in addition to vomiting, the body loses a lot of fluids, impairs electrolytes and, subsequently, metabolism. Often in such cases, they need urgent medical attention.
Nausea occurs as early as the first month after the onset of menstruation. From the 6th week after the previous menstrual period, nausea attacks may intensify and increase in frequency.
Nausea and vomiting more and more often also occur when twins grow in the womb or even more abundant multiple pregnancies.
In about four-fifths of women, nausea and vomiting subside and disappear by 12 to 14 weeks of gestation, but in 20% of women it persists during the fourth and fifth months of pregnancy. Rarely, nausea and vomiting persist even until the end of pregnancy.
The causes of this disorder and the mechanisms of its development are not yet clear to science, but it is believed that changes in the body’s hormones caused by pregnancy play an important role.
Nausea and vomiting in pregnant women, except in the most severe cases, where the metabolism of the pregnant woman is severely impaired, do not generally adversely affect the growth and development of the embryo and fetus.
It should be borne in mind that nausea and vomiting can be caused not only by pregnancy, but also by other conditions and diseases:
- drug or drug poisoning,
- eating disorder,
- gastrointestinal disorders,
- ovarian cyst reversal,
- brain tumors,
- diseases of the vestibular apparatus,
- psychological causes, etc., which can only be qualifiedly diagnosed by a doctor.
Nausea and vomiting are also caused by tumors of abnormal pregnancy – bladder disease and chorionepithelioma.
Relieving severe nausea and vomiting in pregnant women without the help of a doctor is hardly possible and risky.
How to help yourself so that nausea and vomiting, if not completely gone, will at least subside? The following instructions should be followed:
- There is no one-size-fits-all advice or recipe for all women, so the tools on offer need to be tested individually so you can choose the one that works best for you.
- In the morning, before getting out of bed, you should chew a hard biscuit (see pictures below), a breadcrumb or a piece of dried cheese with no drinking liquid and then another 15 minutes. lie in bed.
- Get out of bed slowly, without rushing, without sudden movements.
- Eat often and gradually: at least every 2 hours. or every 1 hour so that the stomach is never left empty.
- Eat mostly protein dry or soft foods.
- It is better to eat cold food because it is less fragrant and therefore less likely to cause nausea. Eating and drinking should be separated from each other: it is better not to drink liquids during meals.
- You need to drink a lot: water, broth, juice, lemonade, carbonated ginger or mint drinks (Schweppes), herbal teas (such as chamomile).
- Cold boiled water with sugar and lemon slices, tea made from boiling water, lemon juice, ginger and honey are also suitable.
- It is advisable to drink plenty of cold carbonated water.
- If odor is interfering, it is better to drink liquids through a straw from covered plastic containers through the angel of the lid.
- The causes of nausea can also be quite individual, so you should avoid odors and products that cause nausea or vomiting.
What foods do not usually cause vomiting? These are:
- Salty food: salty flour chips, salty crispy cookies.
- Together and together sweet food: pickled vegetables and fruits, carbonated lemonade.
- Mashed brown rice, mushroom soup, nut butter, mashed potato soup and porridge.
- Meat jellies, meat broth.
- Crispy vegetables and fruits: celery stalks, apple slices.
- Mild food: mashed potatoes, jelly, broth.
- Soft food: fresh bread, spaghetti-type pasta.
- Sweet food: cakes, cake, sweet cereals.
- Juicy food: frozen juice ice cream, watermelons.
- Beverages: celery, carbonated water, carbonated ginger drinks (Schweppes, etc.), non-citrus juices, herbal teas (eg chamomile, mint, etc.), cold boiled water with sugar and lemon slices, tea made from boiling water, lemon juice, ginger and honey.
- Dry chips (crackers).
Nausea and vomiting are often caused by:
- Fatty, spicy and indigestible foods.
- Citrus juice (lemon, orange, mandarin) juice, coffee, natural or green tea and milk.
- Kitchen and cooking, coffee, unventilated or humid rooms, tobacco, etc. smells of smoke, some perfumes.
- Flashing lights, driving or driving.
- Stress, fatigue, lack of sleep.
- Psychological conflicts.
- Iron tablets promote nausea and are not necessary during the first trimester of pregnancy and should also be discontinued.
Nausea and vomiting are inhibited by:
- Long walks and exercise in the fresh air.
- Sufficient sleep and adequate rest, daytime sleep.
- Multivitamins for pregnant women, especially if they are started a month or even months before conception and are continued during the first trimester of pregnancy. When nausea, vitamins should be taken after a meal, when there is already food in the stomach along with the last portion of food.
- Some medicines:
- Some medicines:
- Ginger preparations: 250 mg of ginger root powder 4 times a day. The therapeutic effect occurs a few days after the start of treatment;
- Vitamin B6 10 – 25 mg 3 – 4 times a day.
Other (prescription) medicines.
- Aromatherapy: Apply chamomile, lavender, mint or rosemary essences or oil on cotton wool and help the night by the bed.
- Acupressure can help: press the acupuncture point P6 (Nei Guan) on the inner surface of the forearm, in a line connecting the base of the big toe to the middle of the elbow joint, 1/6 of the distance from the palm to the elbow (see figure below):
When to see a doctor immediately:
- When it is suspected that nausea and vomiting are caused by causes other than pregnancy, as nausea or vomiting is accompanied by fever, abdominal or headache.
- When within 12-24 hours. nausea or vomiting fails to drink enough fluid to quench thirst.
- When the body weight drops more than 2-2.5 kg.
- When blood impurities appear in the vomit.
- When the urine becomes dark.
- When vomiting is accompanied by dehydration of the body, i. Signs of fluid loss in the patient:
- Head dizziness,
- Stomach pain.